Author(s): YongHing K, KirkaldyWillis WH
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Abstract Degeneration starts in one joint and eventually involves all three joints of the three-joint-complex (one disc and two posterior joints) at an intervertebral level. Later, mechanical changes occur that affect the levels above and below and cause similar changes there. The result is multilevel lumbar spondylosis and stenosis. The spectrum of degenerative changes in a three-joint-complex progresses through three stages, which help to predict the outcome of different types of treatment.
This article was published in Orthop Clin North Am
and referenced in Journal of Spine