alexa The photoprotective molecular switch in the photosystem II antenna.
Environmental Sciences

Environmental Sciences

Journal of Ecosystem & Ecography

Author(s): Ruban AV, Johnson MP, Duffy CD

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Abstract We have reviewed the current state of multidisciplinary knowledge of the photoprotective mechanism in the photosystem II antenna underlying non-photochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching (NPQ). The physiological need for photoprotection of photosystem II and the concept of feed-back control of excess light energy are described. The outline of the major component of nonphotochemical quenching, qE, is suggested to comprise four key elements: trigger (ΔpH), site (antenna), mechanics (antenna dynamics) and quencher(s). The current understanding of the identity and role of these qE components is presented. Existing opinions on the involvement of protons, different LHCII antenna complexes, the PsbS protein and different xanthophylls are reviewed. The evidence for LHCII aggregation and macrostructural reorganization of photosystem II and their role in qE are also discussed. The models describing the qE locus in LHCII complexes, the pigments involved and the evidence for structural dynamics within single monomeric antenna complexes are reviewed. We suggest how PsbS and xanthophylls may exert control over qE by controlling the affinity of LHCII complexes for protons with reference to the concepts of hydrophobicity, allostery and hysteresis. Finally, the physics of the proposed chlorophyll-chlorophyll and chlorophyll-xanthophyll mechanisms of energy quenching is explained and discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosystem II. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. This article was published in Biochim Biophys Acta and referenced in Journal of Ecosystem & Ecography

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