alexa The potential spread of infection caused by aerosol contamination of surfaces after flushing a domestic toilet.
Infectious Diseases

Infectious Diseases

Journal of Tropical Diseases & Public Health

Author(s): Barker J, Jones MV

Abstract Share this page

Abstract AIMS: To determine the level of aerosol formation and fallout within a toilet cubicle after flushing a toilet contaminated with indicator organisms at levels required to mimic pathogen shedding during infectious diarrhoea. METHODS AND RESULTS: A semisolid agar carrier containing either Serratia marcesens or MS2 bacteriophage was used to contaminate the sidewalls and bowl water of a domestic toilet to mimic the effects of soiling after an episode of acute diarrhoea. Viable counts were used to compare the numbers of Serratia adhering to the porcelain surfaces and those present in the bowl water before and after flushing the toilet. Air sampling and settle plates were used to determine the presence of bacteria or virus-laden aerosols within the toilet cubicle. After seeding there was a high level of contamination on the porcelain surfaces both under the rim and on the sides of the bowl. After a single flush there was a reduction of 2.0-3.0 log cycles cm(-2) for surface attached organisms. The number of micro-organisms in the bowl water was reduced by 2.0-3.0 log cycles ml(-1) after the first flush and following a second flush, a further reduction of c. 2.0 log cycles ml(-1) was achieved. Micro-organisms in the air were at the highest level immediately after the first flush (mean values, 1370 CFU m(-3) for Serratia and 2420 PFU m(-3) for MS2 page). Sequential flushing resulted in further distribution of micro-organisms into the air although the numbers declined after each flush. Serratia adhering to the sidewalls, as well as free-floating organisms in the toilet water, were responsible for the formation of bacterial aerosols. CONCLUSIONS: Although a single flush reduced the level of micro-organisms in the toilet bowl water when contaminated at concentrations reflecting pathogen shedding, large numbers of micro-organisms persisted on the toilet bowl surface and in the bowl water which were disseminated into the air by further flushes. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Many individuals may be unaware of the risk of air-borne dissemination of microbes when flushing the toilet and the consequent surface contamination that may spread infection within the household, via direct surface-to-hand-to mouth contact. Some enteric viruses could persist in the air after toilet flushing and infection may be acquired after inhalation and swallowing. This article was published in J Appl Microbiol and referenced in Journal of Tropical Diseases & Public Health

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

  • Mapitsi S Thantsha
    In vitro antagonistic effects of Listeria adhesion protein (LAP)-expressing Lactobacillus casei against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium Copenhagen
    PPT Version | PDF Version

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords