Author(s): Zhou T, Marx KA, Warren M, Schulze H, Braunhut SJ
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Abstract The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) was used to monitor endothelial cell (EC) adhesion on the gold surface of an oscillating quartz crystal contained in a QCM device. A number of parameters were investigated. First, we observed differential QCM O-ring toxicities for ECs. Second, appropriate conditions for cell culture and QCM cell environment were identified that can eliminate large-scale frequency oscillations in the measurements. These artifacts are not due to added cells but originate in the time-dependent evaporation of water. Having eliminated these artifacts, we then demonstrated that the measured steady-state crystal frequency shift, Delta f, and motional resistance shift, DeltaR, were determined by the number of firmly attached ECs requiring trypsinization from the crystal surface. Last, following steady-state attachment of ECs, the EC growth stimulation by fibroblast growth factor was monitored in a continuous fashion by measuring f and R values over a 72 h. period. We observed the Delta f values to increase in a way that reflected the increase in EC number bound to the QCM surface. Following addition of ECs to the QCM, the time-dependent increase in DeltaR can be interpreted in terms of increase by the ECs of the energy dissipation properties of the solution at the solution-gold surface interface. This effect is due to their rapid surface attachment and the elaboration of their cytoskeletal properties. These results indicate that the QCM technique can be used for the study of EC attachment and growth and suggest its potential for the real time study of per unit surface area cell mass distribution dynamics and viscoelastic properties and the cells' responses to stresses or perturbations brought about using biologically active molecules.
This article was published in Biotechnol Prog
and referenced in Journal of Bioengineering and Bioelectronics