alexa The regulation of osteoclast function and bone resorption by small GTPases.
Biomedical Sciences

Biomedical Sciences

Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Medical Devices

Author(s): Itzstein C, Coxon FP, Rogers MJ

Abstract Share this page

Abstract Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells that are responsible for resorption of bone, and increased activity of these cells is associated with several common bone diseases, including postmenopausal osteoporosis. Upon adhesion to bone, osteoclasts become polarized and reorganise their cytoskeleton and membrane to form unique domains including the sealing zone (SZ), which is a dense ring of F-actin-rich podosomes delimiting the ruffled border (RB), where protons and proteases are secreted to demineralise and degrade the bone matrix, respectively. These processes are dependent on the activity of small GTPases. Rho GTPases are well known to control the organization of F-actin and adhesion structures of different cell types, affecting subsequently their migration. In osteoclasts, RhoA, Rac, Cdc42, RhoU and also Arf6 regulate podosome assembly and their organization into the SZ. By contrast, the formation of the RB involves vesicular trafficking pathways that are regulated by the Rab family of GTPases, in particular lysosomal Rab7. Finally, osteoclast survival is dependent on the activity of Ras GTPases. The correct function of almost all these GTPases is absolutely dependent on post-translational prenylation, which enables them to localize to specific target membranes. Bisphosphonate drugs, which are widely used in the treatment of bone diseases such as osteoporosis, act by preventing the prenylation of small GTPases, resulting in the loss of the SZ and RB and therefore inhibition of osteoclast activity, as well as inducing osteoclast apoptosis. In this review we summarize current understanding of the role of specific prenylated small GTPases in osteoclast polarization, function and survival.
This article was published in Small GTPases and referenced in Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Medical Devices

Relevant Expert PPTs

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

agrifoodaquavet@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

clinical_biochem@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

business@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

chemicaleng_chemistry@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

environmentalsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

engineering@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

generalsci_healthcare@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

genetics_molbio@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

immuno_microbio@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

omics@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

materialsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

mathematics_physics@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

medical@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

neuro_psychology@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

pharma@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

social_politicalsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords