Author(s): Wijnen E, Keuter XH, Planken NR, van der Sande FM, Tordoir JH,
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Abstract Access flow (Qa) has an important effect on systemic hemodynamics in dialysis patients. A Qa : cardiac output (CO) ratio higher than 0.3 is considered a risk factor for high-output cardiac failure. However, the effect of different types of vascular access in hemodialysis patients has not yet been studied. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between Qa and systemic hemodynamics and to compare systemic hemodynamics between patients with elbow/upperarm access with forearm access types. Qa, CO, cardiac index (CI), central blood volume (CBV), and peripheral vascular resistance (PVR) were studied by the saline dilution technique in 58 hemodialysis patients (18 with elbow/upperarm access; 40 with forearm access types). This article found that Qa was significantly and positively related to CO and CI, and inversely related to PVR. CBV, Qa, and presence of cardiac failure were independent determinants of CI. Qa and the Qa : CO ratio were significantly higher, and PVR significantly lower, in patients with elbow/upperarm access compared to patients with forearm access types. When patients with cardiac failure were excluded, CO and CI were also significantly higher in patients with elbow/upperarm access types. Eleven percent of patients with elbow/upperarm fistula had a Qa : CO ratio above 0.3. In conclusion, Qa is strongly related to systemic hemodynamics in dialysis patients. In patients without cardiac failure, CO and CI are significantly higher in patients with elbow/upperarm access compared to patients with forearm access types. However, only a small percentage of patients with elbow/upperarm fistulae appeared to be in the risk zone for development of high-output cardiac failure.
This article was published in Artif Organs
and referenced in Journal of Clinical Case Reports