Author(s): Lozier JN, Metzger ME, Donahue RE, Morgan RA
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Abstract We have determined the 2905 nucleotide sequence of the rhesus macaque factor IX complementary DNA (cDNA) and found it to be greater than 95\% identical to that of the human factor IX cDNA. The cDNA has a large 3' untranslated region like the human cDNA, but unlike the human cDNA has two polyadenylation sites 224 nucleotides apart that are used for transcription of the messenger RNA. The deduced amino acid sequence is greater than 97\% identical to that of human factor IX, differing in only 11 of 461 amino acids in the complete precursor protein. We found a single silent polymorphism in the nucleotide sequence at the third position of the codon for asparagine at position 167 in the secreted protein (AAC/AAT). All residues subject to posttranslational modifications in the human protein are also found in the rhesus factor IX sequence. The high degree of homology between the rhesus and human factor IX proteins suggested the possibility that the human factor IX protein might be nonimmunogenic in the rhesus. We tested the immunogenicity of human factor IX in three rhesus macaques by repeated intravenous injections of monoclonal antibody-purified, plasma-derived human factor IX over the course of more than a year and assessed the recovery and half-life of the infused protein, as well as in vitro indicators of antihuman factor IX antibodies. Human factor IX recovery and half-life remained unchanged over the course of a year in the three animals studied, and aPTT mixing studies showed no evidence for neutralizing antihuman factor IX antibodies. An outbred, nonhuman primate model that permits assessment of the level and duration of factor IX expression as well as vector safety would complement the use of other (mouse and canine) hemophilia B animal models in current use for the development of gene therapy for hemophilia B.
This article was published in Blood
and referenced in Journal of Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy