alexa The Ripoptosome, a signaling platform that assembles in response to genotoxic stress and loss of IAPs.
Molecular Biology

Molecular Biology

Journal of Cytology & Histology

Author(s): Tenev T, Bianchi K, Darding M, Broemer M, Langlais C,

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Abstract A better understanding of the mechanisms through which anticancer drugs exert their effects is essential to improve combination therapies. While studying how genotoxic stress kills cancer cells, we discovered a large ∼2MDa cell death-inducing platform, referred to as "Ripoptosome." It contains the core components RIP1, FADD, and caspase-8, and assembles in response to genotoxic stress-induced depletion of XIAP, cIAP1 and cIAP2. Importantly, it forms independently of TNF, CD95L/FASL, TRAIL, death-receptors, and mitochondrial pathways. It also forms upon Smac-mimetic (SM) treatment without involvement of autocrine TNF. Ripoptosome assembly requires RIP1's kinase activity and can stimulate caspase-8-mediated apoptosis as well as caspase-independent necrosis. It is negatively regulated by FLIP, cIAP1, cIAP2, and XIAP. Mechanistically, IAPs target components of this complex for ubiquitylation and inactivation. Moreover, we find that etoposide-stimulated Ripoptosome formation converts proinflammatory cytokines into prodeath signals. Together, our observations shed new light on fundamental mechanisms by which chemotherapeutics may kill cancer cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. This article was published in Mol Cell and referenced in Journal of Cytology & Histology

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