alexa The role of aberrant mitochondrial bioenergetics in diabetic neuropathy.
Medicine

Medicine

Anatomy & Physiology: Current Research

Author(s): Chowdhury SK, Smith DR, Fernyhough P

Abstract Share this page

Abstract Diabetic neuropathy is a neurological complication of diabetes that causes significant morbidity and, because of the obesity-driven rise in incidence of type 2 diabetes, is becoming a major international health problem. Mitochondrial phenotype is abnormal in sensory neurons in diabetes and may contribute to the etiology of diabetic neuropathy where a distal dying-back neurodegenerative process is a key component contributing to fiber loss. This review summarizes the major features of mitochondrial dysfunction in neurons and Schwann cells in human diabetic patients and in experimental animal models (primarily exhibiting type 1 diabetes). This article attempts to relate these findings to the development of critical neuropathological hallmarks of the disease. Recent work reveals that hyperglycemia in diabetes triggers nutrient excess in neurons that, in turn, mediates a phenotypic change in mitochondrial biology through alteration of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) signaling axis. This vital energy sensing metabolic pathway modulates mitochondrial function, biogenesis and regeneration. The bioenergetic phenotype of mitochondria in diabetic neurons is aberrant due to deleterious alterations in expression and activity of respiratory chain components as a direct consequence of abnormal AMPK/PGC-1α signaling. Utilization of innovative respirometry equipment to analyze mitochondrial function of cultured adult sensory neurons from diabetic rodents shows that the outcome for cellular bioenergetics is a reduced adaptability to fluctuations in ATP demand. The diabetes-induced maladaptive process is hypothesized to result in exhaustion of the ATP supply in the distal nerve compartment and induction of nerve fiber dissolution. The role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the etiology of diabetic neuropathy is compared with other types of neuropathy with a distal dying-back pathology such as Friedreich ataxia, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 and human immunodeficiency virus-associated distal-symmetric neuropathy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. This article was published in Neurobiol Dis and referenced in Anatomy & Physiology: Current Research

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

  • International Human Anatomy and Physiology Congress
    November 2-3, 2017 Atlanta, USA

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords