Author(s): Zhang Z, Kumar R, Santen RJ, Song RX
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Abstract Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the United States. Seventy percent of breast cancers are hormone-responsive due to the presence of estrogen receptors ERalpha and ERbeta, which are important diagnostic and therapeutic targets in cancer treatment. Estrogen acts through its receptors, which reside on the cell membrane as demonstrated recently and in the nucleus, leading to cancer cell proliferation and protection from cell death. The membrane ERalpha has been reported in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and is believed to mediate estrogen effects to activate mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase). Activation of many growth factor receptors require adapter proteins to delivery the upstream signals to downstream kinases, such as MAP kinase. Both Shc and the p85alpha subunit of PI3-kinase are adapter proteins. In addition to their roles in transducing signals from membrane growth factor receptors, they have been demonstrated to interact with ERalpha in an estrogen dependent manner. In this review, the role of Shc in mediating estrogen effects on MAP Kinase regulation, cell growth and anti-apoptosis will be discussed. The possible role of PI3-kinase in estrogen rapid action is also reviewed in brief.
This article was published in Steroids
and referenced in Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics