alexa The role of area-level influences on prostate cancer grade and stage at diagnosis


Medical & Surgical Urology

Author(s): Klassen AC

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BACKGROUND: This research explores area-level social influences on prostate cancer, to test whether area-level influences explain disparities in U.S. prostate cancer burden. METHODS: The authors geocoded 23,993 1992-1997 Maryland prostate cancer cases, and linked cases to 1990 census data. The authors examined the effect of 17 area-level social variables, measured at block group, tract, and county, modeling individual and multilevel predictors of later stage and higher tumor grade. RESULTS: Younger age, black race, higher grade or ungraded tumors, and earlier year of diagnosis were associated with later stage. Block group percentage of white-collar workers (O.R. = 0.93, 95% C.I. = 0.89, 0.98), and county resources (O.R. = 0.94, 95% C.I. = 0.89, 0.98), were protective of later stage. Older age, black race, and earlier year of diagnosis were associated with higher grade. Block group income was protective for white men (O.R. = 0.92, 95% C.I. = 0.87, 0.96), but for all men, county resources increased risk of higher grade (O.R. = 1.23, 95% C.I. = 1.16, 1.31). CONCLUSIONS: Social resources did not significantly reduce racial differences. Results suggest tumor biology is related to relative resources, with better outcomes associated with greater small-area wealth in low-resource counties, but stage at diagnosis is associated with absolute resources, with better outcomes associated with higher small-area social class in high-resource counties.

This article was published in Prev Med and referenced in Medical & Surgical Urology

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