alexa The role of autoimmunity at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in the development of thyroid and celiac disease and microvascular complications.
Diabetes & Endocrinology

Diabetes & Endocrinology

Journal of Thyroid Disorders & Therapy

Author(s): Glastras SJ, Craig ME, Verge CF, Chan AK

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OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore whether the presence of thyroid and endomysial autoantibodies at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children predicts development of thyroid and celiac disease, respectively, and whether diabetes-associated autoantibodies at diagnosis predict development of microvascular complications up to 13 years later. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Autoantibodies were measured at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in 173 children aged 0-15 years and included thyroperoxidase antibody (TPOA), endomysial antibody (EMA), islet cell autoantibody, GAD antibody (GADA), and insulin autoantibody. Thyroid disease was defined as thyroid stimulating hormone level > or = 5 microU/ml. Celiac disease was confirmed by small-bowel biopsy. Assessment of microvascular complications included stereoscopic fundal photography, pupillometry, thermal threshold, and albumin excretion rate (AER). RESULTS: The incidence rates for thyroid and celiac disease were 0.9 and 0.7 per 100 patient-years, respectively. Within 13 years, 6 of 13 children with positive TPOA tests at diagnosis developed thyroid disease compared with 5 of 139 children with negative TPOA tests (P < 0.001). All four patients with positive EMA titers at diagnosis had biopsy-proven celiac disease. Five of 11 patients who developed thyroid disease and 4 of 8 who developed celiac disease had negative TPOA and EMA tests at diagnosis, respectively. Retinopathy was detected in 39% and elevated AER in 36%. The presence of diabetes-associated autoantibodies at diagnosis did not predict microvascular complications though GADA titer levels predicted pupillary abnormality. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated TPOA and EMA levels at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes predict the development of thyroid and celiac disease, respectively. In children with negative antibody titers at diagnosis, screening at 2-year intervals is recommended.

This article was published in Diabetes Care and referenced in Journal of Thyroid Disorders & Therapy

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