Author(s): Delanghe JR, Kouri TT, Huber AR, HannemannPohl K, Guder WG,
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Abstract Urine particle flow cytometers (UFC) have improved count precision and accuracy compared to visual microscopy and offer significant labor saving. The absence of an internationally recognized reference measurement procedure, however, is a serious drawback to their validation. Chamber counting by phase contrast microscopy of supravitally-stained uncentrifuged urine is considered the best candidate for reference. The UF-100 (Sysmex Corporation, Japan) identifies RBC, WBC, squamous epithelial cells, transitional epithelial and renal tubular cells (SRC), bacteria, hyaline and inclusional casts, yeast-like cells, crystals and spermatozoa, using argon laser flow cytometry. Evaluations have established acceptable linearity over useful working ranges, with an imprecision that is consistently and significantly less than microscopy, and with negligible carry-over. Comparisons of UFC with chamber counts, quantitative urine microscopy, sediment counts, test strips, bacterial culture and urine density are reviewed. Clinical studies include diagnosis and monitoring of urinary tract infection; localization of the sites of hematuria; and diagnosis, monitoring and exclusion of renal disease. The most popular approach is to combine test strips with UFC for primary screening either always by both methods or by using test strips for analytes unrelated to particles analyzed by UFC. Expert systems now exist combining both test modalities based on user definable decision rules. The implementation of such a strategy significantly reduces microscopy review and saves time and expense without diminishing clinical utility.
This article was published in Clin Chim Acta
and referenced in Reconstructive Surgery & Anaplastology