Author(s): Mukherjee D, Zhao J
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Abstract Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths worldwide. Breast cancer-related mortality is associated with the development of metastatic potential of primary tumor lesions. The chemokine receptor CXCR4 has been found to be a prognostic marker in various types of cancer, including breast cancer. Recent advances in the field of cancer biology has pointed to the critical role that CXCR4 receptor and its ligand CXCL12 play in the metastasis of various types of cancer, including breast cancer. Breast tumors preferentially metastasize to the lung, bones and lymph nodes, all of which represent organs that secrete high levels of CXCL12. CXCL12 acts as a chemoattractant that drives CXCR4-positive primary tumor cells towards secondary metastatic sites leading to the onset of metastatic lesions. Since its discovery in 2001, the CXCR4 field has progressed at a very fast rate and further studies have pointed to the role of CXCR4 in dissemination of tumor cells from primary sites, transendothelial migration of tumor cells as well as the trafficking and homing of cancer stem cells. This review summarizes the information that has been obtained over the years regarding the role of CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling in breast cancer, discusses its potential application to the development of new therapeutic tools for breast cancer control, and elucidates the potential therapeutic challenges which lie ahead and the future directions that this field can take for the improvement of prognosis in breast cancer patients.
This article was published in Am J Cancer Res
and referenced in Journal of Cell Signaling