Author(s): Lindholm PF, Bub J, Kaul S, Shidham VB, KajdacsyBalla A
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Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine if increased NF-kappaB activity of highly invasive PC-3 cells contributed to their invasive behavior. Increased NF-kappaB activity has been observed in several malignant tumors and it may have an important role in tumorigenesis, progression and chemotherapy resistance. By serial selection, we obtained invasion variant PC-3 cell sublines. The PC-3 High Invasive cells invade readily through a Matrigel reconstituted basement membrane while PC-3 Low Invasive cells have low baseline invasion activity. In these studies, we discovered that NF-kappaB DNA binding activity was increased in PC-3 High Invasive cells when compared to PC-3 Low Invasive cells by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Gel supershift assays showed a 4-fold increase in p65 containing complexes and a 2.2-fold increase in the p50 containing complexes in the PC-3 High Invasive cells. Luciferase reporter assays showed that NF-kappaB dependent transcription activity was increased 10.2 +/- 2.5-fold in the highly invasive cells (P < 0.002). The PC-3 High Invasive cells showed a constitutive increase in phospho-IkappaB alpha and introduction of the super-repressor IkappaB alpha S32/36A inhibited NF-kappaB activity to 19.2 +/- 2.5 percent of control transfected cells (P < or = 0.001). The IkappaBa super-repressor reduced the basement membrane invasion of PC-3 High Invasive cells from 6.2 +/- 1.1 to 3.8 +/- 0.4 percent (P < 0.002) with no decrease in cell viability or proliferation. These results demonstrate that increased NF-kappaB activity contributed directly to the invasive behavior of PC-3 High Invasive prostate cancer cells.
This article was published in Clin Exp Metastasis
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology