Author(s): Khaksari M, Soltani Z, Shahrokhi N, Moshtaghi G, Asadikaram G
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Abstract Cytokines play an important role in the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study was designed to determine the effects of administering progesterone (P) and estrogen (E), alone and in combination, on brain water content, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disturbance, and brain level of cytokines following diffuse TBI. Ovariectomized rats were divided into 9 groups, treated with vehicle, E1, E2, P1, P2, E1+P1, E1+P2, E2+P1, and E2+P2. Levels of BBB disruption (5 h), cytokines, and water content (24 h) were evaluated after TBI induced by the Marmarou method. Physiological (E1 and P1) and pharmacological (E2 and P2) doses of estrogen and progesterone were administered 30 min after TBI. Water content in the E1+P2-treated group was higher than in the E1-treated group. The inhibitory effect of E2 on water content was reduced by adding progesterone. The inhibitory effect of E1 and E2 on Evans blue content was reduced by treatment with E1+P1 and E2+P2, respectively. The brain level of IL-1β was reduced in E1 and E2, after TBI. In the E2+P2-treated group, this level was higher than in the E2-treated group. The brain level of TGF-β was also elevated by the administration of progesterone and estrogen alone, and reduced when the hormones were administered in combination. In conclusion, a combined administration of progesterone and estrogen inhibited the decreasing effects of administration of progesterone and estrogen alone on water content and BBB disruption that mediated to change the proinflammatory cytokines.
This article was published in Can J Physiol Pharmacol
and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy