Author(s): Li ZG, Zhang W, Sima AA
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Abstract We have previously shown that hippocampal neuronal apoptosis accompanied by impaired cognitive functions occurs in type 1 diabetic BB/Wor rats. To differentiate the contribution by insulin deficiency vs. that by hyperglycemia on neuronal apoptosis, we examined the activities of various apoptotic pathways in hippocampi from type 1 diabetic BB/Wor rats (hyperglycemic and insulinopenic) and type 2 diabetic BBZDR/Wor rats (hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic). DNA fragmentation was demonstrated by LM-PCR in type 1 diabetic BB/Wor rats, but was not detectable in duration- and hyperglycemia-matched type 2 BBZDR/Wor rats. Of various apoptotic pathways, Fas activations, 8-OHdG expression, and caspase-12 were demonstrated in type 1 diabetic BB/Wor rats only. In contrast, perturbations of the IGF and NGF systems and PARP activation were demonstrated in type 1 and to a lesser extent in type 2 diabetes. Expressions of Bax and active caspase-3 were significantly increased in type 1, but not in type 2, diabetic rats. These data suggest a lesser apoptogenic stress in type 2 vs. type 1 diabetes. These differences translated into a more profound neuronal loss in the hippocampus of type 1 rats. The results demonstrate that caspase-dependent apoptotic activities dominate in type 1 diabetes, whereas PARP-mediated caspase-independent apoptotic stress is present in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The findings suggest that insulin deficiency plays a compounding role to that of hyperglycemia in neuronal apoptosis underpinning primary diabetic encephalopathy.
This article was published in Brain Res
and referenced in Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism