Author(s): Le NT, Richardson DR, Le NT, Richardson DR
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Abstract Iron (Fe) is an obligate requirement for life and it is well known that Fe depletion leads to G(1)/S arrest and apoptosis. These facts, together with studies showing that Fe chelators can inhibit the growth of aggressive tumours such as neuroblastoma, suggest that Fe-deprivation may be an important therapeutic strategy. To optimise the anti-proliferative effects of Fe chelators, the role of Fe in cell cycle control requires intense investigation. For many years, Fe chelators were known to prevent the activity of the R2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (RR) that catalyzes the conversion of ribonucleotides into deoxyribonucleotides (dNTPs) for DNA synthesis. In addition, Fe depletion may also inhibit the newly identified p53-inducible form of this molecule called p53R2. This protein has the same Fe-binding sites as found in R2, and its activity is thought to supply dNTPs for the critical process of DNA repair. Iron chelation also causes hypophosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and decreases the expression of cyclins A, B and D, which are vital for cell cycle progression. Other regulatory molecules whose expression is affected by Fe depletion include p53 and hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha). The levels of p53 increase following Fe chelation via the ability of HIF-1alpha to bind and stabilize p53. The activity of HIF-1alpha is controlled by an Fe-dependent enzyme known as HIF-alpha prolyl hydroxylase (PH). Chelation of Fe from this enzyme inhibits its activity, leading to stabilization of HIF-1alpha and the subsequent effects on downstream targets critical for angiogenesis and tumour growth. The levels of p53 may also increase after Fe chelation by phosphorylation of this protein at serine-15 and -37. This prevents the interaction of p53 with murine double minute-2 (mdm-2) and its degradation. Iron chelation also markedly increases the mRNA levels of the p53-inducible cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitor, p21(WAF1/CIP1). Surprisingly, the increase in p21(WAF1/CIP1) mRNA was not reciprocated at the protein level, and this may result in cell cycle dysregulation. This review will focus on the molecular mechanisms induced following Fe chelation and the role of Fe in cell cycle progression.
This article was published in Biochim Biophys Acta
and referenced in Advanced Techniques in Biology & Medicine