Author(s): Min YW, Rhee PL
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Abstract PURPOSE: The human gut contains >100 trillion microbes. This microbiota plays a crucial role in the gut homeostasis. Importantly, the microbiota contributes to the development and regulation of the gut immune system. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota could also cause several intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. Many experimental studies help us to understand the complex interplay between the host and microbiota. METHODS: This review presents our current understanding of the mucosal immune system and the role of gut microbiota for the development and functionality of the mucosal immunity, with a particular focus on gut-associated lymphoid tissues, mucosal barrier, TH17 cells, regulatory T cells, innate lymphoid cells, dendritic cells, and IgA-producing B cells and plasma cells. FINDINGS: Comparative studies using germ-free and conventionally-raised animals reveal that the presence of microbiota is important for the development and regulation of innate and adaptive immune systems. The host-microbial symbiosis seems necessary for gut homeostasis. However, the precise mechanisms by which microbiota contributes to development and functionality of the immune system remain to be elucidated. IMPLICATIONS: Understanding the complex interplay between the host and microbiota and further investigation of the host-microbiota relationship could provide us the insight into the therapeutic and/or preventive strategy for the disorders related to dysbiosis of the gut microbiota. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Clin Ther
and referenced in Abnormal and Behavioural Psychology