Author(s): Ribeiro JM, Charlab R, Valenzuela JG
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Abstract A cDNA coding for a protein with significant similarity to adenosine deaminase (ADA) was found while randomly sequencing a cDNA library constructed from salivary gland extracts of adult female Culex quinquefasciatus. Prompted by this result, we found high ADA activities in two culicine mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti, but not in the anopheline Anopheles gambiae. Homogenates from Culex quinquefasciatus also have an AMP deaminase activity that is three times greater than the ADA activity, whereas in Aedes aegypti the AMP deaminase activity is less than 10\% of the ADA activity. Evidence for secretion of ADA during blood feeding by Aedes aegypti includes the presence of ADA activity in warm solutions probed through a membrane by mosquitoes and in serotonin-induced saliva and a statistically significant reduction in the levels of the enzyme in Aedes aegypti following a blood meal. We could not demonstrate, however, that C. quinquefasciatus secrete ADA in their saliva. Male Aedes aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, which do not feed on blood, have less than 3\% of the levels of ADA found in females. We propose that ADA activity in A. aegypti may help blood feeding by removing adenosine, a molecule associated with both the initiation of pain perception and the induction of mast cell degranulation in vertebrates, and by producing inosine, a molecule that potently inhibits the production of inflammatory cytokines. The role of salivary ADA in Culex quinquefasciatus remains unclear.
This article was published in J Exp Biol
and referenced in Biochemistry & Physiology: Open Access