alexa The salt-cocrystal continuum: the influence of crystal structure on ionization state.
Pharmaceutical Sciences

Pharmaceutical Sciences

Journal of Pharmacological Reports

Author(s): Childs SL, Stahly GP, Park A

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Abstract Salts and cocrystals are multicomponent crystals that can be distinguished by the location of the proton between an acid and a base. At the salt end of the spectrum proton transfer is complete, and on the opposite end proton transfer is absent in cocrystals. However, for acid-base complexes with similar pK(a) values, the extent of proton transfer in the solid state is not predictable and a continuum exists between the two extremes. For these systems, both the DeltapK(a) value (pK(a) of base - pK(a) of acid) and the crystalline environment determine the extent of proton transfer. A total of 20 complexes containing theophylline and guest molecules with DeltapK(a) values less than 3 have been prepared, resulting in 13 cocrystals, five salts, and two complexes with mixed ionization states based on IR spectroscopy and single-crystal diffraction data. We propose modifications to the DeltapK(a) rule for selecting salt screen counterions that focus on the discovery of solid forms with useful physical properties rather than an arbitrary cutoff value for DeltapK(a). This article was published in Mol Pharm and referenced in Journal of Pharmacological Reports

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