Author(s): May JM
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Abstract The ascorbate transporters SVCT1 and SVCT2 are crucial for maintaining intracellular ascorbate concentrations in most cell types. Although the two transporter isoforms are highly homologous, they have different physiologic functions. The SVCT1 is located primarily in epithelial cells and has its greatest effect in reabsorbing ascorbate in the renal tubules. The SVCT2 is located in most non-epithelial tissues, with the highest expression in brain and neuroendocrine tissues. These transporters are hydrophobic membrane proteins that have a high affinity and are highly selective for ascorbate. Their ability to concentrate ascorbate inside cells is driven by the sodium gradient across the plasma membrane as generated by Na+/K+ ATPase. They can concentrate ascorbate 20 to 60-fold over plasma ascorbate concentrations. Ascorbate transport on these proteins is regulated at the transcriptional, translational and post-translational levels. Available studies show that transporter function is acutely regulated by protein kinases A and C, whereas transporter expression is increased by low intracellular ascorbate and associated oxidative stress. The knockout of the SVCT2 in mice is lethal on day 1 of life, and almost half of SVCT1 knockout mice do not survive to weaning. These findings confirm the importance both of cellular ascorbate and of the two transport proteins as key to maintaining intracellular ascorbate. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Transporters. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.164.issue-7. © 2011 The Author. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.
This article was published in Br J Pharmacol
and referenced in Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy