alexa The structure and regulation of protein phosphatases.
Environmental Sciences

Environmental Sciences

Journal of Biodiversity, Bioprospecting and Development

Author(s): Cohen P

Abstract Share this page

Abstract Four major serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatase catalytic subunits are present in the cytoplasm of animal cells. Three of these enzymes, PP-1, PP-2A, and PP-2B, are members of the same gene family, while PP-2C appears to be distinct. PP-1, PP-2A, and PP-2B are complexed to other subunits in vivo, whereas PP-2C has only been isolated as a monomeric protein. PP-1, PP-2A, and PP-2C have broad and overlapping specificities in vitro, and account for virtually all measurable activity in tissue extracts toward a variety of phosphoproteins that regulate metabolism, muscle contractility, and other processes. Their precise functions in vivo are unknown, although important clues to the physiological roles of PP-1 and PP-2A are provided by the effects of okadaic acid and by the subcellular localization of PP-1. The active forms of PP-1 are largely particulate, and their association with subcellular structures is mediated by "targetting subunits" that direct PP-1 to particular locations, enhance its activity toward certain substrates, and confer important regulatory properties upon it. This concept is best established for the glycogen-bound enzymes in skeletal muscle and liver (PP-1G) and the myofibrillar form (PP-1M) in skeletal muscle. The activities of PP-1 and PP-2B are controlled by the second messengers cyclic AMP and calcium. The activity of PP-2B is dependent on calcium and calmodulin, while PP-1 is controlled in a variety of ways that depend on the form of the enzyme and the tissue. PP-1 can be inhibited by cyclic AMP in a variety of cells through the A-kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation of inhibitor-1 and its isoforms. Phosphorylation of the glycogen-binding subunit of PP-1G by A-kinase promotes translocation of the catalytic subunit from glycogen particles to cytosol in skeletal muscle, inhibiting the dephosphorylation of glycogen-metabolizing enzymes. Allosteric inhibition of hepatic PP-1G by phosphorylase a occurs in response to signals that elevate cyclic AMP or calcium, and prevents the activation of glycogen synthase in liver. PP-1 can also be activated indirectly by calcium through the ability of PP-2B to dephosphorylate inhibitor-1. This control mechanism may operate in dopaminoceptive neurones of the brain and other cells. The inactive cytosolic form of PP-1 (PP-1I) can be activated in vitro through the glycogen synthase kinase-3-catalyzed phosphorylation of its inhibitory subunit (inhibitor-2), but the physiological significance is unclear.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) This article was published in Annu Rev Biochem and referenced in Journal of Biodiversity, Bioprospecting and Development

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version