Author(s): Hazel JR, Sidell BD
Abstract Share this page
Abstract Antarctic fishes of the suborder Notothenioidei characteristically possess large stores of neutral lipids that have been shown to be important both in conferring buoyant lift and as a caloric resource for energy metabolism. Previous work has established that the aerobic energy metabolism of Antarctic fish is fueled predominantly by the catabolism of fatty acids, with the catabolic machinery displaying a preference for the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. The composition of the fatty acids released from adipose tissue of Antarctic fish during lipolysis, however, has not previously been demonstrated. Employing a substrate competition assay, we have characterized the substrate specificity of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) from adipose tissue of the Antarctic fish Trematomus newnesi. Rates of oleic acid release from radiolabeled triolein were quantified in the presence and absence of a nonradiolabeled cosubstrate. Polyunsaturated species of triacylglycerols (TAGs) containing 18:2 or 20:4 depressed rates of oleate release by 70-75\% below control values. Most of the molecular species of TAG containing monoenoic fatty acids (i.e. those containing 14:1, 16:1 or 20:1) had no significant effect on rates of oleate release. By contrast, oleate release from triolein was actually stimulated (by 2-4-fold) by both saturated species of TAG (i.e. those containing 14:0, 16:0 and 18:0) and those possessing long-chain (22:1 and 24:1) monoenes (by 1.2-1.5-fold). Thus, the rank order of substrate preference for adipose tissue HSL was: polyunsaturates > monoenes > saturates. Degree of fatty acid unsaturation had a more marked effect on rates of hydrolysis than did fatty acid chain length. In addition, the enzyme displayed a preference for the hydrolysis of sn-1,2 rather than sn-1,3 diacylglycerols. These data indicate that the substrate specificity of adipose tissue HSL may be an important factor in determining which fatty acids are mobilized during stimulated lipolysis and which are made available for catabolism by other tissues of Antarctic fishes. Our data further suggest that TAGs containing some saturated fatty acids may be sufficiently poor substrates for catabolism by HSL to explain their disproportionate accumulation in adipose tissue. Such a mechanism could also contribute to the ontogenetic accumulation of fats that has been reported as an underlying basis for the positive correlation of buoyancy with increasing body mass in this group.
This article was published in J Exp Biol
and referenced in Journal of Aquaculture Research & Development