Author(s): Cooper WC
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Abstract There are three areas of surgical intervention available to patients with the eye changes of Graves' disease-lids, extraocular muscles, and orbital decompression. The lid changes may be managed by lateral tarsorrhaphy, levator tenotomy, recession of the levator with or without graft, "tenotomy" of the retractors of the lower lid, or recession with graft. The success of these procedures is dependent on proper patient selection and surgical execution, and when these are achieved, definite benefits result.
This article was published in Ophthalmology
and referenced in Journal of Fertilizers & Pesticides