alexa The Swedish reflux trial in children: III. Urinary tract infection pattern.
Pharmaceutical Sciences

Pharmaceutical Sciences

Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety

Author(s): Brandstrm P, Esbjrner E, Herthelius M, Swerkersson S, Jodal U,

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Abstract PURPOSE: We evaluated the difference in the febrile urinary tract infection rate in small children with dilating vesicoureteral reflux randomly allocated to 3 management alternatives, including antibiotic prophylaxis, endoscopic treatment or surveillance only as the control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: At 23 centers a total of 203 children were included in the study, including 128 girls and 75 boys 1 to younger than 2 years. Vesicoureteral reflux grade III in 126 cases and IV in 77 was detected after a febrile urinary tract infection (194) after prenatal screening (9). Voiding cystourethrography and dimercapto-succinic acid scintigraphy were done before randomization and after 2 years. The febrile urinary tract infection rate was analyzed by the intent to treat principle. RESULTS: We noted a total of 67 febrile recurrences in 42 girls and a total of 8 in 7 boys (p = 0.0001). There was a difference in the recurrence rate among treatment groups in girls with febrile infection in 8 of 43 (19\%) on prophylaxis, 10 of 43 (23\%) with endoscopic therapy and 24 of 42 (57\%) on surveillance (p = 0.0002). In girls the recurrence rate was associated with persistent reflux after 2 years (p = 0.0095). However, reflux severity (grade III or IV) at study entry did not predict recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: In this randomized, controlled trial there was a high rate of recurrent febrile urinary tract infection in girls older than 1 year with dilating vesicoureteral reflux at study entry but not in boys. Antibiotic prophylaxis and endoscopic treatment decreased the infection rate. Copyright (c) 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. This article was published in J Urol and referenced in Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety

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