alexa The sympathetic nervous system in heart failure physiology, pathophysiology, and clinical implications


Research & Reviews: Journal of Nursing and Health Sciences

Author(s): Triposkiadis F, Karayannis G, Giamouzis G, Skoularigis J, Louridas G

Abstract Share this page

Heart failure is a syndrome characterized initially by left ventricular dysfunction that triggers countermeasures aimed to restore cardiac output. These responses are compensatory at first but eventually become part of the disease process itself leading to further worsening cardiac function. Among these responses is the activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) that provides inotropic support to the failing heart increasing stroke volume, and peripheral vasoconstriction to maintain mean arterial perfusion pressure, but eventually accelerates disease progression affecting survival. Activation of SNS has been attributed to withdrawal of normal restraining influences and enhancement of excitatory inputs including changes in: 1) peripheral baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflexes; 2) chemical mediators that control sympathetic outflow; and 3) central integratory sites. The interface between the sympathetic fibers and the cardiovascular system is formed by the adrenergic receptors (ARs). Dysregulation of cardiac beta(1)-AR signaling and transduction are key features of heart failure progression. In contrast, cardiac beta(2)-ARs and alpha(1)-ARs may function in a compensatory fashion to maintain cardiac inotropy. Adrenergic receptor polymorphisms may have an impact on the adaptive mechanisms, susceptibilities, and pharmacological responses of SNS. The beta-AR blockers and the inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis form the mainstay of current medical management of chronic heart failure. Conversely, central sympatholytics have proved harmful, whereas sympathomimetic inotropes are still used in selected patients with hemodynamic instability. This review summarizes the changes in SNS in heart failure and examines how modulation of SNS activity may affect morbidity and mortality from this syndrome.

This article was published in J Am CollCardiol and referenced in Research & Reviews: Journal of Nursing and Health Sciences

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals


1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version