Author(s): Saha PK, Reddy VT, Konopleva M, Andreeff M, Chan L
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Abstract The triterpenoid 2-Cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oic-acid (CDDO) and its methyl ester (CDDO-Me) are undergoing clinical trials in cancer and leukemia therapy. Here we report that CDDO-Me ameliorates diabetes in high fat diet-fed type 2 diabetic mice and in Lepr(db/db) mice. CDDO-Me reduces proinflammatory cytokine expression in these animals. Oral CDDO-Me administration reduces total body fat, plasma triglyceride, and free fatty acid levels. It also improves glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests. Its potent glucose-lowering activity results from enhanced insulin action. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp reveals an increased glucose infusion rate required to maintain euglycemia and showed a significant increase in muscle-specific insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (71\% soleus, 58\% gastrocnemius) and peripheral glucose clearance as documented by a 48\% increase in glucose disposal rate. CDDO-Me activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and via LKB1 activation in muscle and liver in vivo. Treatment of isolated hepatocytes with CDDO-Me directly stimulates AMPK activity and LKB1 phosphorylation and decreases acetyl-coA carboxylase activity; it also down-regulates lipogenic gene expression, suppresses gluconeogenesis, and increases glucose uptake. Inhibition of AMPK phosphorylation using compound C and lentiviral-mediated knockdown of AMPK completely blocks the CDDO-Me-induced effect on hepatocytes as well as C(2)C(12) cells. We conclude that the triterpenoid CDDO-Me has potent anti-diabetic action in diabetic mouse models that is mediated at least in part through AMPK activation. The in vivo anti-diabetogenic effects occur at a dose substantially lower than that used for anti-leukemia therapy. We suggest that CDDO-Me holds promise as a potential anti-diabetic agent.
This article was published in J Biol Chem
and referenced in Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism