Author(s): Stenzl A, Cowan NC, De Santis M, Jakse G, Kuczyk MA,
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Abstract CONTEXT: New data regarding diagnosis and treatment of muscle-invasive and metastatic bladder cancer (MiM-BC) has emerged and led to an update of the European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines for MiM-BC. OBJECTIVE: To review the new EAU guidelines for MiM-BC. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A comprehensive workup of the literature obtained from Medline, the Cochrane central register of systematic reviews, and reference lists in publications and review articles was developed and screened by a group of urologists, oncologists, and radiologist appointed by the EAU Guideline Committee. Previous recommendations based on the older literature on this subject were taken into account. Levels of evidence and grade of guideline recommendations were added, modified from the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine Levels of Evidence. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The diagnosis of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (BCa) is made by transurethral resection (TUR) and following histopathologic evaluation. Patients with confirmed muscle-invasive BCa should be staged by computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis, if available. Adjuvant chemotherapy is currently only advised within clinical trials. Radical cystectomy (RC) is the treatment of choice for both sexes, and lymph node dissection should be an integral part of cystectomy. An orthotopic bladder substitute should be offered to both male and female patients lacking any contraindications, such as no tumour at the level of urethral dissection. Multimodality bladder-preserving treatment in localised disease is currently regarded only as an alternative in selected, well-informed, and compliant patients for whom cystectomy is not considered for clinical or personal reasons. An appropriate schedule for disease monitoring should be based on (1) natural timing of recurrence, (2) probability of disease recurrence, (3) functional deterioration at particular sites, and (4) consideration of treatment of a recurrence. In metastatic disease, the first-line treatment for patients fit enough to sustain cisplatin is cisplatin-containing combination chemotherapy. Presently, there is no standard second-line chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: These EAU guidelines are a short, comprehensive overview of the updated guidelines of (MiM-BC) as recently published in the EAU guidelines and also available in the National Guideline Clearinghouse.
This article was published in Eur Urol
and referenced in Journal of Cancer Science & Therapy