alexa Theoretical and methodological aspects of BCG vaccine from the discovery of Calmette and Guérin to molecular biology. A review.
Microbiology

Microbiology

Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals

Author(s): Lugosi L

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Abstract The BCG vaccine has been used to prevent tuberculosis since 1921 and applied for immunostimulation in neoplasia since the 1960s. Both the preventive and immunostimulation effects have been evaluated and communicated with contradictory, positive and negative conclusions. For an objective evaluation and interpretation of the protective efficacy, effectiveness and efficiency of the BCG vaccination it must be considered that: (1) several BCG substrains have been developed in manufacturing laboratories that differ in the residual virulence which determines immunogenicity and reactogenicity; (2) various liquid and freeze-dried BCG vaccine production methods are used, resulting in different BCG viable units per dose; (3) quantitative bioassay methods are not yet being used for statistical quality control of the vaccine; (4) BCG products are applied in various demographical, epidemiological and socioeconomic conditions with different vaccination policies; (5) inadequate biostatistical models are often used to analyse efficacy, effectiveness and adverse reactions. The same conditions influence the precise evaluation of BCG immunostimulation in neoplasia. Recombinant DNA technology will modify production methods, and explain at the molecular level the mechanism of the protective effects BCG confers in tuberculosis and immunostimulation in neoplasia. High level laboratory techniques and biostatistical methods, based on probability logic and inductive inference, ensure appropriate experimental designs and the exact analysis of laboratory data and the results of vaccination policies. They will lead to the evaluation of the protective effect of BCG in order to reduce the BCG contradictions. This article was published in Tuber Lung Dis and referenced in Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals

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