Author(s): Bindoli A, Fukuto JM, Forman HJ
Abstract Share this page
Abstract The oxidation chemistry of thiols and disulfides of biologic relevance is described. The review focuses on the interaction and kinetics of hydrogen peroxide with low-molecular-weight thiols and protein thiols and, in particular, on sulfenic acid groups, which are recognized as key intermediates in several thiol oxidation processes. In particular, sulfenic and selenenic acids are formed during the catalytic cycle of peroxiredoxins and glutathione peroxidases, respectively. In turn, these enzymes are in close redox communication with the thioredoxin and glutathione systems, which are the major controllers of the thiol redox state. Oxidants formed in the cell originate from several different sources, but the major producers are NADPH oxidases and mitochondria. However, a different role of the oxygen species produced by these sources is apparent as oxidants derived from NADPH oxidase are involved mainly in signaling processes, whereas those produced by mitochondria induce cell death in pathways including also the thioredoxin system, presently considered an important target for cancer chemotherapy.
This article was published in Antioxid Redox Signal
and referenced in Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics