Author(s): Palmberger TF, Hombach J, BernkopSchnrch A
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Abstract The aim of the study was to develop a novel oral delivery system for the efflux pump substrate acyclovir (ACY) utilizing thiolated chitosan as excipient which is capable of inhibiting P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Three chitosan-4-thiobutylamidine (Chito-TBA) conjugates with increasing molecular mass (Chito-9.4kDa-TBA, Chito-150kDa-TBA and Chito-600kDa-TBA) were synthesized and permeation studies on rat intestinal mucosa and Caco-2 monolayers were performed. Additionally, tablets comprising the conjugates and ACY were tested towards their drug release behaviour. The efflux ratio (secretory P(app)/absorptive P(app)) of ACY across Caco-2 monolayers was determined to be 2.5 and in presence of 100microM verapamil 1.1 which indicates ACY as P-gp substrate. In comparison to buffer only, the transport of ACY in presence of 0.5\% (m/v) unmodified chitosan, 0.5\% (m/v) Chito-150kDa-TBA and 0.5\% (m/v) Chito-150kDa-TBA with 0.5\% (m/v) reduced glutathione (GSH), was 1.3-, 1.6- and 2.1-fold improved, respectively. Transport studies across Caco-2 monolayers showed that P-gp inhibition is dependent on the average molecular mass of thiolated chitosan showing following rank order: 0.5\% (m/v) Chito-150kDa-TBA/GSH>0.5\% (m/v) Chito-9.4kDa-TBA/GSH>0.5\% (m/v) Chito-600kDa-TBA/GSH. The higher the molecular mass of Chito-TBA was, the more sustained was the release of ACY. Chito-150kDa-TBA/GSH might be an appropriate sustained release drug delivery system for ACY, which is able to enhance ACY transport due to efflux pump inhibition.
This article was published in Int J Pharm
and referenced in Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine