Author(s): Akin I
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aortic dissection is an uncommon but highly lethal condition with a mortality rate of 1-2% per hour within the first 24 h when the ascending aorta is affected and remains a surgical domain. For the treatment of type B aortic dissection, however, endovascular techniques became available recently and are increasingly popular. This review focuses on current indications and results of thoracic endovascular stent-graft therapy in aortic dissection.
RECENT FINDINGS: Uncomplicated type B aortic dissections should be managed medically and kept under surveillance for delayed expansion in 20-50% patients over 4 years. Endovascular treatment should be considered in the setting of impending or actual complications, for example, when the aortic diameter exceeds 55-60 mm, in the case of uncontrolled pain or blood pressure with evidence of malperfusion syndrome or rapid growth of the dissecting aneurysm (>1 cm/year). In both complicated acute and chronic type B aortic dissections, endovascular therapy may emerge as an attractive alternative to open surgery. However, in uncomplicated chronic type B aortic dissection, endovascular therapy failed to improve outcomes over optimal medical therapy within 2 years despite aortic remodeling.
SUMMARY: Endovascular stent-graft therapy for aortic dissection is emerging with good mid-term results. Further indications, that is, aortic arch dissection and uncomplicated acute aortic dissections, are under evaluation.Angiology: Open Access