Author(s): Shirian S, Oryan A, Hatam GR, Daneshbod Y
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Abstract Cases of human oro-mucosal leishmaniasis are mainly reported in areas where Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis perpetuates and the damages are mainly located at the cartilaginous nasal septum and frontal portions of the nasal fossa. In Iran, an area free of any L.(V) braziliensis, three Leishmania species are known to perpetuate through distinct (i) blood-feeding sand flies and (ii) rodents or (iii) canidae. Thus while establishing the diagnosis of any human oro-mucosal lesions, three Leishmania species - L. infantum, L. major, and L. tropica - must be considered as potential etiological agents of these damages. With these objectives in mind, features such as localization, extent, severity of oro-mucosal lesions, and duration of symptoms at the time of diagnosis were recorded from 11 patients with respect to the presence or absence of cutaneous lesions in other body parts. The biopsy samples were collected from the oro-mucosal and cutaneous lesions and were processed for further identification of the Leishmania species. The lesions ranged from mucosal nodules without ulceration, nodules with erosion, and shallow to deep ulcerations. Leishmania major was isolated from six (55\%) cases showing lesions or scars. The scars were restricted to upper and lower extremities. For the other five patients who did not display any signs of former or active cutaneous leishmaniasis, L. major, L. tropica, and L. infantum were isolated from their lesions. In conclusion L. major, L. infantum, and L. tropica, regardless of common tropism, can be seen in mucosal tissues. However, L. major was the predominant species detected from the lesions in the nasal, gingival, and hard and soft palates, and L. tropica was isolated from the gingival and lower lip lesions. Leishmania infantum was isolated from two severe cases of deep mucosal damage displayed by the epiglottis, cricoarytenoid muscle, and laryngeal mucosa. One important finding was the association of L. major with active or scarred skin lesions.
This article was published in Pathog Glob Health
and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy