alexa Thyroid cancer in infants and adolescents after Chernobyl.
Pathology

Pathology

Diagnostic Pathology: Open Access

Author(s): Reiners C, Demidchik YE, Drozd VM, Biko J

Abstract Share this page

Abstract Studies in children medically exposed to external irradiation more than 50 years ago revealed a considerably increased risk for thyroid cancer. Similarly, a strongly age-dependent risk for thyroid cancer was observed in the Japanese population after the atomic bomb explosions with the highest risk in the group of children below age of 10. After the Chernobyl accident, children from Belarus living in highly exposed regions received mean thyroid doses by radioactive fallout higher by a factor of approximately 2 as compared to the survivors of the atomic bomb explosions. This lead to a radiation related increase of thyroid cancer incidence in children and adolescents with the highest incidence in age group 0-4 years up to now totally amounting to approximately 5 000 cases. For screening of thyroid cancer in children, high resolution ultrasound is the method of choice which has to be complemented by fine-needle aspiration biopsy in suspicious cases. Diagnostic criteria for malignancy in childhood thyroid cancer by ultrasound are hypoechogenicity and irregularity of the outline, subcapsular location of lesions and increased peri-intranodular vascularisation. The treatment strategy for thyroid cancer in children does not differ substantially from the approach used in adults. Primary treatment consists of thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection. Careful and complete removal of the lymph nodes is of great clinical relevance in children because of very frequent node involvement (between 40\% and 90\%). Because of the high prevalence of lymph node metastases, ablation of thyroid remnants is mostly indicated in children with thyroid cancer. Distant metastases which need higher activities of radioiodine are less frequent with 10-20\%. Even in advanced cases of childhood thyroid cancer, long-lasting remissions can be achieved. A specific finding in children is disseminated, milliary lung metastases with intense radioiodine uptake. In this situation, pulmonary fibrosis may be a severe side-effect so that the indication for repeated courses of radioiodine therapy has to be decided thoroughly. With respect to side-effects of radioiodine therapy, the risk of developing breast cancer has to be taken into account seriously since especially the female breast is exposed to a relatively high radiation dose. Generally, young patients treated with high activities of radioiodine should be carefully followed up during their whole lifespan.
This article was published in Minerva Endocrinol and referenced in Diagnostic Pathology: Open Access

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords