Author(s): GajewskaZbiegien Z, Gadamska T, SzilagyiPagowska I, Pawlik K, GajewskaZbiegien Z, Gadamska T, SzilagyiPagowska I, Pawlik K
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Abstract The authors present the latest approach to the problem of etiopathology of tic disorders: the role of neurotransmitters and dopamine as well as the role of genetic and immunological factors. They present a classification of tic disorders according to American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edn. (1944) APA Washington. A general description of the clinical picture is given. Preliminary results of own investigations are discussed. Chronic tics were diagnosed in more then 50\% of children under study whereas symptoms of Tourette syndrome were observed in 25\% of patients. Children under treatment demonstrated the motoric tics which appeared independently or together with vocal ones. Tics were often associated with anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorders and with school problems.
This article was published in Med Wieku Rozwoj
and referenced in Journal of Child and Adolescent Behavior