alexa "Time is brain" the Gifford factor - or: Why do some civilian gunshot wounds to the head do unexpectedly well? A case series with outcomes analysis and a management guide.


Journal of Neurology & Neurophysiology

Author(s): Lin DJ, Lam FC, Siracuse JJ, Thomas A, Kasper EM

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Abstract BACKGROUND: Review of intracranial gunshot wounds (GSWs) undergoing emergent neurosurgical intervention despite a very low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score on admission in order to identify predictors of good outcome, with correlates to recent literature. METHODS: A retrospective review of select cases of GSWs presenting to our trauma center over the past 5 years with poor GCS requiring emergent neurosurgical intervention and a minimum of 1-year follow-up. RESULTS: Out of a total of 17 patients who went to the operating room (OR) for GSW to the head during this period, 4 cases with a GCS < 5 on admission were identified. All cases required a hemicraniectomy to alleviate cerebral swelling. Two cases presented with a unilaterally blown pupil due to raised intracranial pressure. The remaining 2 cases had equal and reactive pupils. One patient with a GCS of 3 and a significant bilateral pattern of parenchymal bullet injury was initially assessed in moribund status but rallied and received a delayed hemicraniectomy on day 7. Three out of 4 patients are functionally independent at 1-year follow-up. The fourth patient who received a delayed decompression remains wheelchair dependent. CONCLUSION: Victims of GSWs can have good outcomes despite having a very poor admission GCS score and papillary abnormalities. Factors predicting good outcomes include the following: time from injury to surgical intervention of < 1 h; injury to noneloquent brain; and absence of injury to midbrain, brainstem, and major vessels.
This article was published in Surg Neurol Int and referenced in Journal of Neurology & Neurophysiology

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