Author(s): Huh SY, RifasShiman SL, Taveras EM, Oken E, Gillman MW
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Abstract OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between timing of introduction of solid foods during infancy and obesity at 3 years of age. METHODS: We studied 847 children in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study. The primary outcome was obesity at 3 years of age (BMI for age and gender ≥ 95th percentile). The primary exposure was the timing of introduction of solid foods, categorized as <4, 4 to 5, and ≥ 6 months. We ran separate logistic regression models for infants who were breastfed for at least 4 months ("breastfed") and infants who were never breastfed or stopped breastfeeding before the age of four months ("formula-fed"), adjusting for child and maternal characteristics, which included change in weight-for-age z score from 0 to 4 months-a marker of early infant growth. RESULTS: In the first 4 months of life, 568 infants (67\%) were breastfed and 279 (32\%) were formula-fed. At age 3 years, 75 children (9\%) were obese. Among breastfed infants, the timing of solid food introduction was not associated with odds of obesity (odds ratio: 1.1 [95\% confidence interval: 0.3-4.4]). Among formula-fed infants, introduction of solid foods before 4 months was associated with a sixfold increase in odds of obesity at age 3 years; the association was not explained by rapid early growth (odds ratio after adjustment: 6.3 [95\% confidence interval: 2.3-6.9]). CONCLUSIONS: Among formula-fed infants or infants weaned before the age of 4 months, introduction of solid foods before the age of 4 months was associated with increased odds of obesity at age 3 years.
This article was published in Pediatrics
and referenced in Journal of Nutritional Disorders & Therapy