alexa TIR domain-containing adaptors define the specificity of TLR signaling.
Immunology

Immunology

Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology

Author(s): Yamamoto M, Takeda K, Akira S

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Abstract The concept that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize specific molecular patterns in various pathogens has been established. In signal transduction via TLRs, MyD88, which harbors a Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR)-domain and a death domain, has been shown to link between TLRs and MyD88-dependent downstream events leading to proinflammatory cytokine production and splenocyte proliferation. However, recent studies using MyD88-deficient mice have revealed that some TLRs possess a MyD88-independent pathway, which is represented by interferon (IFN)-beta production induced by LPS stimulation. This indicates that additional signaling molecules other than MyD88 exist in the TLR signaling pathway. Indeed, two additional TIR domain-containing adaptors, TIRAP/Mal and TRIF, have recently been identified. Both define the specific biological responses of each TLR.
This article was published in Mol Immunol and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology

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