alexa Tissue engineered bone: measurement of nutrient transport in three-dimensional matrices.
Genetics & Molecular Biology

Genetics & Molecular Biology

Journal of Tissue Science & Engineering

Author(s): Botchwey EA, Dupree MA, Pollack SR, Levine EM, Laurencin CT

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Abstract The classic paradigm for in vitro tissue engineering of bone involves the isolation and culture of donor osteoblasts or osteoprogenitor cells within three-dimensional (3D) scaffold biomaterials under conditions that support tissue growth and mineralized osteoid formation. Our studies focus on the development and utilization of new dynamic culture technologies to provide adequate nutrient flux within 3D scaffolds to support ongoing tissue formation. In this study, we have developed a basic one-dimensional (1D) model to characterize the efficiency of passive nutrient diffusion and transport flux to bone cells within 3D scaffolds under static and dynamic culture conditions. Internal fluid perfusion within modeled scaffolds increased rapidly with increasing pore volume and pore diameter to a maximum of approximately 1\% of external fluid flow. In contrast, internal perfusion decreased significantly with increasing pore channel tortuosity. Calculations of associated nutrient flux indicate that static 3D culture and some inappropriately designed dynamic culture environments lead to regions of insufficient nutrient concentration to maintain cell viability, and can result in steep nutrient concentration gradients within the modeled constructs. These quantitative studies provide a basis for development of new dynamic culture methodologies to overcome the limitations of passive nutrient diffusion in 3D cell-scaffold composite systems proposed for in vitro tissue engineering of bone. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 67A: 357-367, 2003 This article was published in J Biomed Mater Res A and referenced in Journal of Tissue Science & Engineering

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