Author(s): Pietrocola G, Arciola CR, Rindi S, Di Poto A, Missineo A, , Pietrocola G, Arciola CR, Rindi S, Di Poto A, Missineo A,
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Abstract Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the most important class of innate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) by which host immune and non-immune cells are able to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Most mammalian species have 10 to 15 types of TLRs. TLRs are believed to function as homo- or hetero-dimers. TLR2, which plays a crucial role in recognizing PAMPs from Staphylococcus aureus, forms heterodimers with TLR1 or TLR6 and each dimer has a different ligand specificity. Staphylococcal lipoproteins, Panton-Valentine toxin and Phenol Soluble Modulins have been identified as potent TLR2 ligands. Conversely, the ligand function attributed to peptidoglycan and LTA remains controversial. TLR2 uses a MyD88-dependent signaling pathway that results in NF-kB translocation into the nucleus and activation of the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes. Recognition rouses both an inflammatory response, culminating in the phagocytosis of bacteria, and an adaptive immune response, with the presentation of resulting bacterial compounds to T cells. Here, recent advances on the recognition of S. aureus by TLRs are presented and discussed, as well as the new therapeutic opportunities deriving from this new knowledge.
This article was published in Int J Artif Organs
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research