Author(s): Ptashynski MD, Pedlar RM, Evans RE, Baron CL, Klaverkamp JF, Ptashynski MD, Pedlar RM, Evans RE, Baron CL, Klaverkamp JF
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Abstract The sublethal toxicity associated with exposure of adult lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) to diets containing 0, 10, 100, and 1000 microg Ni per g for 10, 31, and 104 days was assessed through the measurement of responses, through a range of levels of biological organization. The accumulation and distribution of Ni in these fish are described in the previous manuscript (Ptashynski and Klaverkamp, 2001. Aquat. Toxicol. in press). Hematological parameters, including concentrations of glucose and hemoglobin and hematocrit, were not different between control and treated fish. Organ and whole organism parameters, including LSI, growth, and condition factor, were also unaffected. Histopathological lesions in kidney and liver proved to be the most sensitive and reliable indicators of Ni exposure. In livers of treated fish, areas of focal necrosis and altered bile ducts were observed. Histological alterations were observed throughout the posterior kidneys, in glomeruli, tubules, collecting ducts, and hematopoietic tissue, in fish fed medium and high dose diets. In whitefish kidneys, the frequency (\%) of altered distal tubules and fields of views with alterations increased with the dose and duration of exposure. Significant increases in metallothionein concentrations were observed in intestine of whitefish fed the high dose diet on day 10, but these increases were not sustained. Significant increases in lipid peroxide concentrations were also observed in plasma of whitefish fed the high dose diet on day 31, but were not observed on day 104. These biochemical responses to dietary Ni require further evaluation. To evaluate exposure of natural populations of fish to Ni, analysis of Ni in kidney and liver and assessment of renal and hepatic histopathology are recommended for use in field bio-monitoring programs.
This article was published in Aquat Toxicol
and referenced in Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology