Author(s): Valentine WM
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Abstract Pyrethroids have a wide spectrum of insecticidal potency, vertebrate toxicity, and environmental stability. The exceptionally high selectivity ratios of pyrethrins and pyrethroids have resulted in their use for insect control in numerous formulations. A primary effect of pyrethroids is to slow the closing of the sodium activation gate in nerve cells. All pyrethroids have essentially the same basic mechanism of action on voltage-dependent sodium channels but differ in the magnitude of effect. Based on clinical signs, electrophysiologic responses, and chemical structure, pyrethroids can be classified as Type I or Type II. Inhibition of the GABAA receptor appears to be an additional mechanism of Type II pyrethroids. Clinical signs in small animals during a pyrethroid toxicosis vary but are generally attributable to neural dysfunction. Treatment consists of decontamination procedures and application of appropriate symptomatic care, including control of seizures if necessary.
This article was published in Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract
and referenced in Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta