alexa Traces of self-organisation and long-range memory in variations of environmental radon in soil: comparative results from monitoring in Lesvos Island and Ileia (Greece)
Geology & Earth Science

Geology & Earth Science

Journal of Earth Science & Climatic Change

Author(s): Dimitrios Nikolopoulos, Ermioni Petraki, Efstratios Vogiannis, Yiannis Chaldeos, Panayiotis Yannakopoulos

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This paper addresses issues of self-affinity, long-memory and self-organisation in variations of radon in soil recorded in Lesvos Island, Greece. Several techniques were employed, namely (a) power-law wavelet spectral fractal analysis, (b) estimation of Hurst exponents through (b1) rescaled-range, (b2) roughness-length, (b3) variogram and (a), (c) detrended fluctuation analysis, (d) investigation of fractal dimensions and (e) analysis of five block entropies: (e1) Shannon entropy, (e2) Shannon entropy per letter, (e3) conditional entropy, (e4) Tsallis entropy, and (e5) normalised Tsallis entropy. Long-lasting antipersistency was identified during a period of anomalous radon variations following fractional Brownian modelling. Remaining variations did not exhibit analogous behaviour and followed fractional Gaussian modelling. Antipersistent power-law-beta-exponent-values between 1.5 and 2.0 were detected during anomalies. Persistent values were also found. Hurst exponents were mainly within 0 < H < 0.5. Some persistent exponents (0.5 < H < 1) were also observed. Fractal dimensions were within 1.5 < D < 2. Radon anomalies presented lower fractal dimensions. Shannon entropy ranged between 0.77 ≤ H(n) ≤ 2.38, Shannon entropy per letter, between 0.19 ≤ h(n) ≤ 0.59, conditional entropy, between 0.01 ≤ h(n) ≤ 0.58, Tsallis entropy, between 0.55 ≤ Sq ≤ 1.01 and normalised Tsallis entropy between, 0.98 ≤ \(\hat{S}\) ≤ 5.42 (block-size n = 4). Entropies were lower during anomalies, indicating strong self-organisation. Persistency–antipersistency switching was observed, consistent with long-memory dynamics. Potential geological sources were discussed. The asperity-model was proposed. Findings were compared to results obtained under analogous methodologies in Ileia, Greece.

This article was published in Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry and referenced in Journal of Earth Science & Climatic Change

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