alexa Tracing transformation: chronic migraine classification, progression, and epidemiology.


Journal of Pain Management & Medicine

Author(s): Lipton RB

Abstract Share this page

Abstract Migraine attacks sometimes increase in frequency over time. Headache experts conceptualize this process with a model that envisions transition into and out of four distinct states: no migraine, low-frequency episodic migraine (<10 headaches per month), high-frequency episodic migraine (10-14 headaches per month), and chronic migraine (CM, >or=15 headaches per month). Transitions may be in the direction of increasing or decreasing headache frequency and are influenced by specific risk factors. Overall, population studies estimate that patients who have low-frequency episodic migraine or high-frequency episodic migraine will transition to CM at the rate of about 2.5\% per year. Two longitudinal population studies, the Frequent Headache Epidemiology study and the ongoing American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention (AMPP) study provide longitudinal population data that has defined the rates of and risk factors for transition. Launched in 2004, the AMPP study has followed a sample of >10,000 migraine sufferers annually for 4 years. Cross-sectional data from the Frequent Headache Epidemiology study and the AMPP study show that patients with chronic daily headaches have lower levels of education and household income. In addition, epidemiologic profiles show that CM sufferers tend to be older and have higher body mass indexes. These studies have also assessed a number of potential risk factors associated with the transition to CM. These include baseline high attack frequency, obesity, stressful life events, snoring, and overuse of certain classes of medication. In particular, opiate and barbiturate combination products contribute to migraine progression, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents are protective in patients with <10 headache days per month. The influence of medication is modified by both headache attack frequency and frequency of medication use. Although depression and anxiety are associated with an increased risk of new-onset CM, the influence of depression is accounted for by migraine disability assessment scale score, whereas the effect of anxiety may be independent of migraine disability assessment scale score. Emerging data on the longitudinal risk of CM suggest that, in a population at risk, CM may be a preventable disorder. This article was published in Neurology and referenced in Journal of Pain Management & Medicine

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals


1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version