Author(s): Kagan JC, Su T, Horng T, Chow A, Akira S,
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Abstract Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) induces two distinct signaling pathways controlled by the TIRAP-MyD88 and TRAM-TRIF pairs of adaptor proteins, which elicit the production of proinflammatory cytokines and type I interferons, respectively. How TLR4 coordinates the activation of these two pathways is unknown. Here we show that TLR4 activated these two signaling pathways sequentially in a process organized around endocytosis of the TLR4 complex. We propose that TLR4 first induces TIRAP-MyD88 signaling at the plasma membrane and is then endocytosed and activates TRAM-TRIF signaling from early endosomes. Our data emphasize a unifying theme in innate immune recognition whereby all type I interferon-inducing receptors signal from an intracellular location.
This article was published in Nat Immunol
and referenced in Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals