Author(s): Payne KA, Roelofse JA
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Abstract Tramadol hydrochloride is a racemic mixture of two enantiomers. It has analgesic activity suitable for mild to moderate pain, part of its analgesic activity being modulated via mu receptors. Adult studies have raised the question of increased electroencephalographic activity. The study examined the analgesic efficacy, respiratory effects, and behavior plus recovery-influencing properties of tramadol in the pediatric patient. Day-case dental extraction children, aged 4-7 years having 6 or more extractions, were studied. Tramadol drops, 3 mg/kg, plus oral midazolam, 0.5 mg/kg, were administered 30 minutes prior to a sevoflurane in N2O and O2 anesthetic. Forty children received this premedication treatment (T) and 10 entered a placebo control group (P), where no tramadol was administered. Entry was random, double blind, and parallel. Analgesic efficacy was measured using the Oucher face pain scale (OFPS), with responders scoring three or less. Respiration was measured by rate and oxygen saturation. Behavior and ease of mask induction were assessed on a 4-point scale. Recovery was measured with the Aldrete scale. Parameters were measured from 30 minute preanesthetic to 120 minute postanesthetic. Analgesic efficacy was shown, with an OFPS score of 11.42 (SD 18.66) (T) and 29.80 (SD 25.14) (P) (P < .05). Responders on tramadol were 77.5\% versus 0\% on placebo (P < .05). No respiratory depression was seen; rates and oxygen saturations were the same preanesthetic and postanesthetic. Similarly, the two groups had no cardiovascular differences. Preanesthetic behavior patterns were the same (P > .05), with 85\% of the tramadol group being drowsy but awake versus 90\% in the placebo group. Similarly satisfactory induction behavior was seen in 95\% of the tramadol group and 90\% of the placebo group. Recovery times were 48.6 minutes (SD 32.3) (T) and 43.1 minutes (SD 32.5) (P) (P > .05). It is concluded that tramadol at 3 mg/kg has no clinical respiratory depressant effect and that behavior and recovery times are unaffected. Analgesic efficacy is demonstrated.
This article was published in Anesth Prog
and referenced in Journal of Anesthesia & Clinical Research