Author(s): Maharjan S, Serova L, Sabban EL
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Abstract Reported effects of estrogen administration on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene expression are confusing. Therefore, we studied the mechanism of regulation of TH transcription by estrogen with different estradiol receptor (ER) subtypes. PC12 cells, transiently co-transfected with expression vector for ERalpha or ERbeta, and luciferase gene under control of the TH promoter, were treated with 17 beta-estradiol (E2). E2 doubled luciferase activity with ERalpha; however, it was decreased with ERbeta. Mapping the TH promoter showed that the putative half estrogen response element (ERE) motif at - 675, as well as the activation protein 1 motif at - 205, were not required for response to E2 with either ER. The specificity protein 1/early growth response gene 1 (Egr 1) motif was required for the E2-elicited response with ERbeta, but not with ERalpha. Deletion of the cyclic AMP/Ca2+ response element (CRE/CaRE) nearly abolished E2-triggered responses with either ER. Further analysis revealed an imperfect canonical putative ERE overlapping with CRE/CaRE and Nurr1 response element. Oligonucleotides spanning this ERE displayed binding to ER, Cyclic AMP Response Element Binding Protein (CREB) and other proteins. Moreover, E2 attenuated the increase in TH transcription seen with cyclic AMP analogs. Thus, TH is transcriptionally regulated by estradiol in opposite directions depending on ER subtype. The overlapping ERE and CRE/CaRE may integrate interactions elicited by various regulators of TH transcription including cAMP and estrogens.
This article was published in J Neurochem
and referenced in Journal of Steroids & Hormonal Science