Author(s): Graupe D, Kohn KH
The paper describes a system for transcutaneous functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) of certain traumatic thoracic-level complete paraplegics for independent unbraced short distance ambulation. The system described has been approved by the FDA in 1994 for that purpose. Its design, control, operation principles and parameters are described. Patient acceptance criteria and contraindications are outlined as is patient's training. Ambulation results are discussed and clinical and medical observations are reviewed. Finally general comments are made on the system's shortcomings and on possible improvements.