Author(s): Davies GF, Ross AR, Arnason TG, Juurlink BH, Harkness TA
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Abstract We previously demonstrated that the PPARgamma agonist Troglitazone (TRG), a potent antiproliferative agent, in combination with the anthracycline antibiotic Doxorubicin (DOX), is an effective killer of multiple drug resistant (MDR) human cancer cells. Cell killing was accompanied by increased global histone H3 acetylation. Presently, we investigated the epigenetic and cell killing effects of TRG in estrogen receptor (ER) positive MCF7 breast cancer cells. MCF7 cells were treated with the Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) TRG and Ciglitazone (CIG), the non-TZD PPARgamma agonist 15PGJ2, and the histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi's) Trichostatin A (TSA), sodium butyrate and PXD101. Using MTT cell viability assays, Western analyzes and mass spectrometry, we showed a dose-dependent increase in cell killing in TRG and HDACi treated cells, that was associated with increased H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) and H3K23 acetylation, H2AX and H3S10 phosphorylation, and H3K79 mono- and di-methylation. These effects were mediated through an ER independent pathway. Using HDAC activity assays, TRG inhibited HDAC activity in cells and in cell lysates, similar to that observed with TSA. Furthermore, TRG and TSA induced a slower migrating HDAC1 species that was refractory to HDAC2 associations. Lastly, TRG and the HDACi's decreased total and phosphorylated AKT levels. These findings suggest that TRG's mode of killing may involve downregulation of PI3K signaling through HDAC inhibition, leading to increased global histone post-translational modifications. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Cancer Lett
and referenced in Journal of Cytology & Histology